Why does this happen? When you are cold or frightened, the body tries to capture body heat by creating a thick layer of trapped air. The body does this through contracting the tiny muscles underneath each hair and causing the hairs to stand up. When the hairs stand up, warm air is trapped, helping the body stay warm. So the goose bumps you see forming on the surface of the skin is basically contracted muscle that pops up.
Goose bumps do not only exist in humans but in other mammals as well. An example would be a porcupine that erects its quills when it feels threatened. Studies also showed that animals such as chimpanzees, mice, and rats get goose bumps when they feel strong emotions such as fear or anger.
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